David Merrill keynote on instructional design

David Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction:

  1. Activation – learning is promoted when learners activate relevant cognitive structures.
  2. Demonstration – learning is promoted when learners observe a demonstration of the skills to be learned
  3. Application – learning is promoted when learners apply their newly acquired knowledge and skill
  4. Integration – learning is promoted when learners integrate their new skills into their everyday life
  5. Real-world task – learning is promoted when people are doing real world tasks

ADDIE Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation (?)
ISD – Instructional Systems Development
Question is not whether or not these are dead, they are just labels, you do need to think about the stages of development

Developing task-centred instruction:

  • Identify whole task
  • Identify task progression
  • Analyse component skill
  • Designing instructional strategy
  • Design instructional interface
  • Develop instruction
  • Monitor instruction
  • Evaluate

Relative contribution to learning (approx):

  • 50% Content (selection, sequence, structure)
  • 20% Strategy (presentation, demonstration, practice, application)
  • 5% Delivery (online, CD Rom)
  • 25% Other

Why get students to write essays to demonstrate their knowledge when they never have to do it when they work?

Recomends a task centred instructional strategy (lookup):
1. Show a new whole task and the component skills for situation A
2. Have students apply skills in new context (situation B)
3. Teach component skills for the new task (ellaborate)
4. Apply to further contexts…. (lookup)

Questions to ask subject matter experts (lay-person terms).
Content Knowledge:
Information / Portrayal (process)

About matthewbower

Professor at Macquarie University.
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